Biological wastewater treatment


Flocks contain substances of organic and inorganic origin, and the organic is much larger. And if inorganic inclusions are easier to get rid of mechanically, then other methods are needed to remove organic impurities. One of the networks is biological wastewater treatment. You will learn about its features, varieties and technologies in this article.
Water is life, but we consume it clean, but we turn dirty. If the drains are not cleaned, the “precious moisture” time, described by many science writers, will come very soon. Nature can purify water, but these processes proceed very slowly. The number of people is increasing, the volume of water consumption is also increasing, so the problems of organized and thorough sewage treatment are particularly acute. The most efficient water purification technology is precisely biological. But before considering the basic principles of his work, it is necessary to deal with the composition of water.

Biological wastewater treatment methods and its benefits. Biological wastewater treatment plants and structures
Biological wastewater treatment methods include aerotanks, biological filters and so-called bioputers. Each method has its own characteristics that we will show you further.
This biological purification technique involves the interaction of the pre-mechanical flow and active method. The interaction takes place in separate containers – they consist of a minimum of two sections and are equipped with ventilation systems. Active IL contains a large number of aerobic microorganisms, which under appropriate conditions are derived from water pollutants. IL is a complex system of biocenosis, in which bacteria, depending on regular oxygen uptake, begin to absorb organic impurities. Biological purification occurs continuously under one main condition – air must enter the water. When the organic processing is completed, the level of oxygen consumption (BD) drops, and the water is fed to the following sections.

In other sections, bacterial nitrifers are involved in the work, which processes an element such as nitrogen of ammonium salts with the formation of nitrites. These processes carry part of the microorganisms, the other eats nitrate to form nitrates. Upon completion of this process, the cleaned towers are fed into the middle pit. Here Active Il is precipitated, and the purified water is sent to the reservoirs.
Biofilter is a biological treatment plant among country homeowners. It is a compact device, which includes a tank with a loading material. In the form of an active film in the Bio filter there are microorganisms that perform the same processes as in the first case.

Types of installations:
two phases;
pigeon filtration.
The performance of equipment with one type of point filtration is low, but they guarantee the maximum degree of wastewater treatment. The second type is more productive, but the cleaning quality will be approximately the same as in the first case. Both filters consist of so-called “body”, distributor, drainage and air distribution systems. The principle of operation of biofilters is similar to the principle of operation of airplanes.
Biological ponds
To purify wastewater from this method, there must be an open artificial reservoir into which self-cleaning processes will flow. This method is most effective, even shallow ponds to a depth of one meter are suitable. The considerable surface area allows for warm water well, which also has the necessary impact on life participation processes in the cleaning of microorganisms. This method is maximally effective – at a temperature of about 6 degrees and below the oxidation processes are suspended. In winter, cleaning does not happen at all.

Types of ponds:
fish breeding (diluted);
multistage (pa hollim);
doochetic ponds.
In the first case, the towers are mixed with river water, after which they are sent to ponds. In the second, water is sent to the tank without dilution immediately after dissolution. The first method requires about two weeks, and the second month. The advantage of multistage systems is a relatively low price.
What are the advantages of the biological method of wastewater treatment?
Biological waste treatment guarantees to get almost 100% clean water. Note, however – as an independent method, the biodeund is not used. It is possible to obtain crystal clear water only if you remove inorganic impurities in other ways, and then remove the organic by a biological method.
Aerobic and anaerobic bacteria – what is it?
The microorganisms used in the wastewater treatment process are divided into aerobic and anaerobic. Aerobics exist only in a medium with oxygen and are completely organically broken down into CO2 and H2O, while simultaneously synthesizing their biomass. The formula of this process is as follows:
Cxhyoz + O2 – \ u003e CO2 + H2O + biomass bacteria,
where Cxhyoz is an organic substance.
Anaerobic microorganisms normally cost without oxygen, but also a small increase in biomass. Bacteria of this type are needed for oxygen-free fermentation of organic compounds with methane formation. Formula:
Cxhyoz – \ u003e CH4 + CO2 + Biomass bacteria
Anaerobic techniques are essential in high concentrations of organic matter – which exceed the maximum allowed for aerobic microorganisms. With low organic content, anaerobic microorganisms, on the contrary, are ineffective.

Purpose of biological water purification methods
Most drainage contaminants are substances of organic origin. Basic sources of pollution data and purified drainage consumers:
Housing and communal services, food industry enterprises and livestock complexes.
Enterprises of chemicals, refineries, pulp and paper, as well as the leather industry.
The composition of the flow in these cases will be different. One thing can be said for sure – only under the state of complex purification with the obligatory use of biological methods, ideal results can be achieved.
Principles of biological purification and list of necessary equipment
Taking into account the current principles of biological purification, the equipment is selected for the organization of treatment biodesics. Key options:
biological ponds;
filtration fields;
filtration wells;
sand-gravel filters;
circulating oxidation channels;
Note that different techniques can be used for artificial and natural wastewater treatment.
Wastewater treatment by biological methods: advantages and disadvantages

Wastewater treatment by biological methods: advantages and disadvantages
Biological techniques are effective for purifying organic wastewater, but it is possible to achieve really high results only under the condition of integrated use of various methods. In addition, the possibilities of bacteria are not endless – microorganisms remove small impurities. The cost of biological wastewater treatment plants is relatively low.
All wastewater treatment methods
Before entering the biological treatment system, the drains must undergo mechanical cleaning, and after that – disinfection (chlorination, ultrasound, electrolysis, ozonation, etc.) and disinfection. Therefore, in the context of complex wastewater treatment, chemical, mechanical, membrane, reagent methods have also been used.


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